导航菜单
图片
点评详情
发布于:2020-11-27 15:39:24  访问:1 次 回复:0 篇
版主管理 | 推荐 | 删除 | 删除并扣分
Floor Leveling Compound
An additional population was cultured in the presence of IL in complete medium made without glucose, whereas a fourth population was cultured in the presence of IL and supplemented with mM methylpyruvate immediately prior to MNNG treatment.The major form of programmed cell death described to date is apoptosis.In this report, we describe a form of cell death in which the cell actively initiates its own necrosis in response to alkylating DNA damage.In response to DNA damage, cells activate PARP, an enzyme that catalyzes poly. This activity of PARP can increase the accessibility of DNA to DNA repair enzymes and transcription factors.There has been controversy concerning the role of PARP in the regulation of cell survivaldeath in response to DNA damage.In cells that maintain their ATP production exclusively by catabolizing glucose, PARP activation results in a rapid decline in cellular ATP and necrotic death.In contrast, in cells that can maintain nonglucosedependent oxidative phosphorylation, PARP activation does not compromise cellular bioenergetics and such cells are resistant to DNA damageinduced death.In general, it is believed that most chemotherapeutic drugs induce tumor cells to die by apoptosis.However, a central feature of perhaps all cancers is the development of apoptotic resistance.The most common genetic abnormality in human tumors is buy Oclacitinib mutation of p.Loss of p function is associated with pronounced apoptotic resistance. Nevertheless, alkylating agents remain the single most effective and broadly active chemotherapeutic agents. It is thought that the efficacy of alkylating drugs results from the selective ability to kill proliferating cells.Proliferating cells have been shown to have an increased propensity to apoptosis under some circumstances. As a result, they maintain ATP production almost exclusively through catabolizing glucose through a mixture of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation termed aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, cells that are not actively growing or replicating are capable of catabolizing a variety of metabolic substrates to maintain ATP production. Inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has been shown to induce death of vegetative cells. In contrast, mitochondrial inhibitors do not affect the viability of cells with a highlevel glycolytic rate because they are capable of maintaining ATP levels without mitochondrial respiration. By differentially affecting ATP generation from glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration, our results demonstrate that activation of PARP can selectively kill cells that are preferentially maintaining their bioenergetics through glycolysis.The data presented here raise the possibility that the alkylating drugs are effective not because they activate apoptosis in their target cells but because they induce a tumorselective form of necrosis.This necrotic form of programmed cell death may be adaptive as it both eliminates the possibility of cell survival and induces an immune response to the dying cell.In response to DNA damage, there is an active redistribution of the macrophage activator HMGB from the nucleus to the cytosol. HMGB is a small acidic protein localized to chromatin primarily by electrostatic forces ation, the resulting increase in negative charge may displace HMGB, thus releasing it from the chromatin.This, in turn, will increase HMGB release into the extracellular environment if the cell loses plasma membrane integrity during necrotic death.
共0篇回复 每页10篇 页次:1/1
共0篇回复 每页10篇 页次:1/1
我要回复
回复内容
验 证 码
看不清?更换一张
匿名发表 
当前位置
点评搜索
点评分类

家电制造企业网站 Copyright(C)2009-2010 香港高速空间www.dns110.com


 

 
 
访问统计